GRAPE FOR HOME BUSINESS
When organizing the grape business, you can go in two ways: growing vines in the open ground and in the greenhouse. In certain places, getting a crop without greenhouses is almost impossible. Grapes are a thermophilic culture. And you cannot make your profit dependent on weather conditions. Therefore, we consider both options for the cultivation of delicious berries.
LANDING AND CARE OF GRAPES IN GREENHOUSES
In some regions, it is impossible to grow grapes in open ground. The way out is the greenhouse.
home-made or finished greenhouse with air vents;
drip irrigation system to maintain optimal soil moisture;
devices for heating and lighting.
Vineyard in a greenhouse. Features of agricultural technology:
Daytime air temperature during budding is 10-14 °, night – 8-10 °. During the growing season and flowering – 24-26 ° (during the day), 14-16 ° (at night). During the development of clusters and ripening of berries – 28-30 ° (during the day), 18-20 ° (at night).
Vine forcing in greenhouses begins in February-April. It’s not worth doing this before, because A lot of money is spent on heating and lighting.
The rest period for grapes is 2-2.5 months. At this time, the temperature in the greenhouses is maintained at 0-5 °.
Growing grapes at home can not be called a short-term investment. It requires some patience. Since the first crop can be obtained no earlier than the second year.
If in the free space in the greenhouse to arrange beds for greens and vegetables, then investments will return faster.
GRAPE GROWING FROM SHEETS BY THE ACCELERATED METHOD
Planting grapevine cuttings. The traditional cultivation of grape seedlings from cuttings gives a harvest no earlier than for the third year. But greenhouses allow you to grow a good vine from the cuttings in the first year, and get the crop in the second. Only under the condition that the cultivation of grapes from cuttings will be carried out according to special technology to accelerate the growth of vines.
The whole secret lies in the depth of planting the cuttings. In all the literature it is described that it must be planted at least to a depth of 50 cm so that winter frost does not kill the root of the grape. But if you plant a stalk in the spring to a depth of only 5-10cm. (this is enough to get a reliable and resilient rod root system), then in the fall you can already get a few meters of vines. And next year a good harvest. While the traditional technology for this period gives only 50cm, a maximum of 1 meter of vine.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE! Since cuttings are planted to a minimum depth, soil moisture should be controlled to prevent drying out, which destroys the plant. Cuttings die for only two reasons:
The shoots dry out with a lack of moisture.
Roots rot due to lack of air.
Do not forget about devices for opening additional access of oxygen to the soil (the most elementary – the tube is stuck into the soil to a depth of 10 cm near the root). After all, oxygen will not only preserve the root system, but will also perceive the intensive growth of the vine.
When propagating grapes, you can get a crop in the first year, but this method is not cuttings.
Katavlak for the reproduction of grapes.
Katavlak is the reproduction of grapes by layering from a whole bush by laying vines in the ground at a distance of 1.5-2 meters (as shown in the figure). This method of transplantation gives a small crop already in the first year and is more reliable than grafting.
GROWING AND CARE OF GRAPES IN OPEN GROUND
Harvest in the vineyard. The vineyard is best defined on the warmest and sunniest part of its land. This culture loves light and light sandy soil.
Preparation of ridges and planting grapes:
The distance between rows – 2-3 m. Between the bushes of medium-sized varieties – 1.5-2 m, vigorous plants – from 2 m.
Planting pits are prepared half a month before planting seedlings. The size of one pit is 80 * 80 * 80 cm. Dig and immediately water well, so that the soil is a little donkey.
Humus (2 buckets), sand for drainage and lightness (a bucket), fertile soil (2 buckets), wood ash as the first top dressing (1 kg) are poured into the prepared pit. The whole mixture is mixed and spilled with two buckets of water. The remaining volume of the pit is filled with fertile soil.
Along the ridges trellises are installed to maintain the bushes. You can make them from acacia branches up to 3 m long. The bark is removed from them, the surface is burned. The lower part, which will go to the ground, is doused with hot resin. The ground part of the branches is painted. Such preparation will save the design for a long time. The trellis is placed at a distance of 3-4 m. Between them pull the wire in increments of 40 cm.
Grape seedlings are planted in pits at an angle of 45 ° to the trellis. Sprinkle with clean earth, gently shaking the bush so that the roots take the right direction. Abundantly watered.